To browse Academia. Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Download Free PDF. Lauren McMillan. McMillan There are currently three formula dating techniques available to archaeologists studying 17th- and 18th-century colonial sites with imported white, ball-clay, tobacco-pipe stems. Data on pipe stem-bore diameters were collected from 28 sites in Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina to test the accuracy and utility of the three formula dating methods. Pipes are ideal artifacts for the past 50 years Omwake ; Walker , dating colonial sites because they were , ; Whitehouse ; Belcher and immensely popular and modified constantly Jarrett ; Pfeiffer ; Alexander ; throughout the period.
Canadian Historic Sites: Occasional Papers in Archaeology and History No. 2
In the beginning — , maybe the pipes were stamped Mi Reserva my reserve. Later the Reg No was added. This Reg No has nothing to do with shape numbers, but is merely the Castello company trademark.
believed that 66 pipe stems would also suffice. However, this method cannot be used dating single stem fragments but merely groups of such, nor does it seem.
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From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository. File information. Structured data. Captions English Add a one-line explanation of what this file represents. Summary [ edit ] 31 fragments of clay pipe stems and three bowl fragments dating to the Post-Medieval period. English: 31 fragments of clay pipe stems and three bowl fragments dating to the Post-Medieval period. The smallest fragment of the group is 6.
The largest one is 9. They are all undecorated and unstamped. The fragments date from c. You cannot overwrite this file.
There are certain changes of nomenclature that occurred over the long history that assist in arriving at approximate time scales. These changes include:. It should also be remembered that, as the stamps used for stamping pipes got worn, new ones would have been ordered and used alongside the old ones and there could therefore be overlapping of different style.
pipe fragments recovered were measurable stem frag- ments. The Phase III tobacco pipe dating methods are characterized by the majority (57%%) of.
A tobacco pipe , often called simply a pipe , is a device specifically made to smoke tobacco. It comprises a chamber the bowl for the tobacco from which a thin hollow stem shank emerges, ending in a mouthpiece. Pipes can range from very simple machine-made briar models to highly prized hand-made artisanal implements made by renowned pipemakers, which are often very expensive collector’s items. Pipe smoking is the oldest known traditional form of tobacco smoking. Some Native American cultures smoke tobacco in ceremonial pipes , and have done so since long before the arrival of Europeans.
Other American Indian cultures smoke tobacco socially. Tobacco was introduced to Europe from the Americas in the 16th century and spread around the world rapidly. As tobacco was not introduced to the Old World until the 16th century,  the older pipes outside of the Americas were usually used to smoke various other substances, including hashish , a rare and expensive substance outside areas of the Middle East, Central Asia and India, where it was then produced.
A pipe’s fundamental function is to provide a relatively safe, manipulable volume in which to incompletely combust a smokable substance. Typically this is accomplished by connecting a refractory ‘bowl’ to some sort of ‘stem’ which extends and may also cool the smoke mixture drawn through the combusting organic mass see below. The broad anatomy of a pipe typically comprises mainly the bowl and the stem.
Because the time span of the casemate under study is relatively short about 50 years dating of pipes has been done primarily on the evidence of makers’ marks and names. With the exception of the Dutch bowls, all bowls from which the shape could be deduced appeared to be basically of Oswald’s type 9 Oswald 60, In the New World at least, the export version Oswald’s type 9c and numerous variants and derivatives were universal long after this, and certainly as late as about I.
In England, Oswald’s type 10 continued the more traditional features in various forms. This type continued for most of the 18th century until type 11, a derivative of type 9, became standard and finally set the norm for what is traditionally considered the shape of a British clay pipe. Harrington’s method of dating pipe fragments by bore diameter measurement Harrington was not used in this study, as the relevant Harrington period, , covered virtually the entire occupancy of the area involved.
Dating clay pipe stems. Clay tobacco pipe makers’ marks from london – a physical and digital database of clay pipe makers’ marks from london excavations.
Stem stamps are only rarely found. The ones featured in the picture here were made in Bristol as well as the Isle of Wight. There were Italian pipe makers, make no mistake, but these workshops and factories seemed to focus on maintaining high production numbers rather than on the quality of the product. Another theory among archeologists for the decrease in bore diameters is that tobacco became more refined, meaning the pieces of tobacco were smaller.
Finds of this period are very frequent in gardens as the ‘s was a peak time for production. Charles Dickens, A Negro, Sailor. A lot of care goes into the few pieces lucky enough to make the cut; to end up with a certain number of Autographs, for instance, means that many, many more will be made, and only the few will be selected.
Comoy’s Dating Guide
Impressed into clay tobacco pipes are bits of data that have fueled endless research avenues since the earliest days of archaeology on historic sites excavated on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean. Archaeologists analyze multiple clues to date and identify the pipe maker including a careful combination of archaeological site context, bowl style and form, pipe stem bore diameter, style and placement of the mark itself, and place of manufacture.
We ask that if you have a nearly complete bowl from which a type can be determined, to use the Oswald typology, but there is also a field to record reference to another typology, should you prefer.
Thumbnails Detail Comments. The manufacture of clay pipes for smoking began in Britain about , a few years after the introduction of tobacco from America. The earliest forms of pipe were made from kaolin clay white ball clay and it is likely their form was adapted from those used by the American Indians. Since then, clay pipes manufactured within the British Isles continued to be made from kaolin clays which has the advantage over other clays of giving the pipe a uniformly white colour after firing and less shrinkage.
Dating clay pipes As a result of research and archaeological excavations, clay pipes can generally be dated to within 20 years or so and as such are now important artefacts used in dating archaeological layers. Criteria for dating clay pipes were developed based on their bowl size and shape as well as stem bore diameters. Stem bore diameters were greatest in the earliest pipes and narrowing with regularity over the following years. By , stem bore diameters had stabilised and so this method for dating pipes is not applicable to pipes manufactured after c.
The size and shape of the bowl can also be another way to broadly date clay pipes. The earliest pipe bowls were hardly any wider then their stem whereas by the bowl had increased to a more bulbous form with a greater capacity to hold more tobacco. Stem lengths varied but this tended to be in response to fashionable demands and so is not a reliable criterion for dating.
Clay tobacco-pipe studies played an important, yet unacknowledged, role in the formation process of historical archaeology in Germany. Systematic analyses of smoking utensils and the craftsmanship involved in making them were the forerunners of the academic discipline. Clay-pipe studies were never restricted by disciplinary boundaries. Methods and approaches were drawn from ethnology, archaeology, and history, but the field remained purely Eurocentric.
However, clay-pipe research has come to a halt.
White Clay Pipe Stem Bore D i a m e t e r s. Decorated Terra-Cotta Pipe Stems. dating a stem bore population, but as Hanson () s ta te s.
The clay tobacco pipe is an exceptional tool for dating archaeological sites from the historic period because it has undergone a series of stylistic changes over its history of production. The importance of these stylistic changes becomes apparent when one considers that the fragile nature and inexpensive cost of clay pipes resulted in their being smoked, broken and discarded all within the period of a year or two. A large part of the research on clay pipes has dealt with the identification of marks with which makers identified their product.
If a particular mark and pipe bowl can be identified, then so can its place of origin, the date range within which it was made and therefore, a basic time frame for when it was deposited. This article deals specifically with the marked clay tobacco pipes excavated from Ferryland, NL, encompassing examples from both the 17th and 18th centuries. The origins of the clay tobacco pipe date back to the s when tobacco smoking first became fashionable in England.
According to William Harrison “In these daies the taking-in of the smoke of the Indian herbe called ‘Tobaco’ by an instrument formed like a little ladell, whereby it passeth from the mouth into the head and stomach, is gretlie taken-up and used in England” Harrison as cited in Oswald It is not known for certain whether these early smoking instruments were made of clay, but by the s, there is specific reference to the use of clay pipes fashioned for tobacco smoking Oswald By the early part of the 17th century, the clay tobacco pipe industry began to develop in many local centres throughout Britain and in many parts of the Netherlands.
Most of these locally-made clay pipes had a limited distribution within their area of manufacture but in the cases of port towns and overseas trading centres, some clay pipes were shipped to the North American colonies. These early pipes typically had a short stem with a large bore diameter and a small “acorn” shaped, rouletted bowl that angled away from the smoker.